Danger is Real
- On October 12, 2017, a Skyjet flight was struck by a drone while inbound to Jean Lesage International Airport in Québec City.
- The flying drone passed directly over the right wing of the Airbus A319 which was preparing to land at Gatwick. The incident occurred on 09. July and was classified at the highest degree of risk.
- A drone in Petaluma halted Cal Fire helicopters from flying out to the fires in California
- The FAA logged more than 500 drone incidents in six months
- Overview of UAV-related events
Crime and Terrorists Support
Classical Radar Systems are useless
Classical radar systems are unable to detect the drones on the low attitude.
Solution: specialised anti-drone systems based on the coherent receivers
Detection range up to 10 km.
Dedrone utilizes an array of sensors:
- Acoustical sensors (Audio / Ultrasonic, 0 – 96 KHz)
- Optical sensor (Near Infrared HD Camera)
- Wi-Fi sensor (Detection of WLAN signals, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz)
- Optical sensor (daylight, Video, 1080p HD Camera)
- RF sensor (passive, network-attached sensor for the detection of radio frequencies (RF))
Active protection possible using Jammer System.
- Detection Range up to 1 km (with parabolic dish sensor)
- No active emissions, system is completely passiv
- Base station sends the microphone’s data to the network processor (0.4 Mbps upload speed necessary)
- Omnidirectional sensor pack: omnidirectional microphone, base station (connectivity to internet necessary)
- Long-range sensor pack: parabolic dish with microphone, base station (connectivity to internet necessary)
No active protection available.
Joint-Venture with ORELIA SAS.
The solutions combines the excellent portfolio Squarehead microphone arrays with the real time sound recognition capacity of ORELIA. See the press-release for more information.
No further information available about the product availability.
- RF Drone or Radar Detection System based on the Aaronia IsoLOG 3D Tracking Array Antenna and Spectran V5 Real-time Spectrum Analyzer + software
- At least 1 km coverage
- Work at night, fog and bad weather
- Based on the spectrum analysator (9 KHz to 20 GHz, 500 MSPS (14 Bit Dual 256MSPS I/Q), very fast sweep mode, scans 20GHz in less than 20mS)
- No active protection
There is no information publicly available about the products (e.g. long-range radar or jamming devices).
On 27.07.2016 Airbus DS Electronics and Border Security (EBS) and Dedrone, San Francisco, provided a press-release that they have concluded a cooperation agreement to combine their skills to protect lower airspace from small drones. The partners intend to jointly offer drones defense systems that can reliably detect and defend against the unauthorized entry of drones in critical airspaces.
Active protection is supported due to the Smart Responsive Jamming Technology developed by Airbus DS EBS, the jamming signals only block the frequencies used to operate the drone while other frequencies in the vicinity remain operational. See this presentation for more details.
Detection Range up to 1 km.
R&S ARDRONIS can additionally be equipped with a direction finding function. The inclusion of direction finders and multichannel antennas, such as the ADDx series, enables the R&S ARDRONIS to achieve higher sensitivity and precision. This enables direction finding and transmission monitoring for both the UAV operator and the vehicle, as well as any video feed being streamed.
Active protection is supported due to the purposefully interruption of the drone control signals to prevent the drone from performing a safety-critical maneuver. Only the signals for controlling the drones are disturbed. Other signals in the environment are not affected.
Founded in 2016, Vorpal provides a non-transmitting RF-based drone location and mitigation solution:
- VigiAir: A ground-based, distributed network of passive sensors that detects, geolocates and tracks drones operating in the monitored area. The provided sensor is RF-based with several antennas that enable to find the direction from which the received signal is transmitted. VigiAir system collects the data from multiple ground-based sensors and use some kind of triangulation (or less probably trilateration) algorithm in order to locate the exact emitter position. There is no public information available which technique is used for the direction finding and which frequencies are supported. According to video, sensors have to be located in the interval of 2-3 kilometers. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that the detection range is about 3-5 kilometers and the RF-range is up to 6 GHz.
- VigiAir Drone: Drone-based VigiAir-system enhancement that enables to expand the coverage and improve the accuracy of geolocation.
- Vigiair Extract and Control Unit: Software solution for the extraction of command and control telemetry information incl. detection and transmission decoding.
There is no information officially available.
It seems from the job positions on the web-site that the company intend to use the SDR-technologies in order to detect and manipulate the drones. According to the fusion.net, SkySafe wouldn’t go into detail about their technology on the record because it’s proprietary, but the basic idea isn’t totally unprecedented. A few years back, a University of Texas team commandeered a drone by feeding it fake GPS signals (a technique known as “spoofing”). Others have experimented with using malware or leveraging a drone’s API to do the hijacking.
Different radar systems with the range up to 150 km. Most military usage.
- Unlicensed frequency space such as the ISM (Industrial Scientific Medical)
- Development of the protocol manipulation software
- MESMER v.1 is software based solution running on Linux SDR platform
CerbAir provides 4 modular anti-drone solutions:
- Stationary Solution: 24/7 Anti-Drone Protection
- Mobile Solution: On-the-Spot Temporary Protection
- Portable Solution: On-Foot protection
- Vehicle Solution: Protection on Wheels
500 meter detection range.
UAVX – detect, identify and defeat UAVs using radar, artificial intelligence, video tracking and non-kinetic response.
MOBX – Detect and track MOB using radar, artificial intelligence, and long-range video tracking.
- Daylight canera
- Thermal Camera
- Radar (Transmit Frequency X-band 10 Ghz, range resolution 3 meters)
Microflown and Microflown AVISA provide acoustic sensors that measure acoustic particle velocity instead of the well-known sound pressure. The core product is the Acoustic Multi-Mission Sensor (AMMS), incorporating various directional Microflown sensors, a DSP and a wind cap. The sensor is passive and requires no line of sight. Most usage scenarios presented on their site are military.
Blighter A400 Series Air Security Radar
- Detection range – 10 km
- Minimum target size – 0,01 m2
- Frequency band – Ku-band
- Radar type: E-scan Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) Doppler Surveillance Radar
Military Radar Systems
Most available military radar systems can be used for the drone detection and neutralisation. These systems are not available on the commercial market and we don’t discuss and compare their characteristics.
Coherent RF-Modules as subassebmlies:
- 24 MHz – 1766 MHz (higher frequencies possible)
- 8 bit, 2.56 MS/s per channel (16 bit in development)
- Active protection possible using the noise card (transmitter in development)
- Open architecture and open source software